|Surgeon General's Warning
BodybuildingPro.com Nutrition Database Surgeon General's Warning
An estimated 300,000 deaths per year may be attributable to
The risk of death rises with increasing weight. Even moderate
weight excess (10 to 20 pounds for a person of average height)
increases the risk of death, particularly among adults aged 30 to
64 years. Individuals who are obese (BMI > 30) have a 50 to 100%
increased risk of premature death from all causes, compared to
individuals with a healthy weight.
The incidence of heart disease (heart attack, congestive heart
failure, sudden cardiac death, angina or chest pain, and abnormal
heart rhythm) is increased in persons who are overweight or obese
(BMI > 25).
High blood pressure is twice as common in adults who are obese
than in those who are at a healthy weight. Obesity is associated
with elevated triglycerides (blood fat) and decreased HDL
cholesterol ("good cholesterol").
A weight gain of 11 to 18 pounds increases a person's risk of
developing type 2 diabetes to twice that of individuals who have
not gained weight.
Over 80% of people with diabetes are overweight or obese.
Overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk for
some types of cancer including endometrial (cancer of the lining of
the uterus), colon, gall bladder, prostate, kidney, and
postmenopausal breast cancer.
Women gaining more than 20 pounds from age 18 to midlife double
their risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, compared to women whose
weight remains stable.
Sleep apnea (interrupted breathing while sleeping) is more common
in obese persons. Obesity is associated with a higher prevalence of
For every 2-pound increase in weight, the risk of developing
arthritis is increased by 9 to 13%. Symptoms of arthritis can
improve with weight loss.
Complications of pregnancy. Obesity during pregnancy is associated
with increased risk of death in both the baby and the mother and
increases the risk of maternal high blood pressure by 10 times. In
addition to many other complications, women who are obese during
pregnancy are more likely to have gestational diabetes and problems
with labor and delivery. Infants born to women who are obese during
pregnancy are more likely to be high birthweight and, therefore,
may face a higher rate of Cesarean section delivery and low blood
sugar (which can be associated with brain damage and seizures).
Obesity during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of
birth defects, particularly neural tube defects, such as spina
bifida. Obesity in premenopausal women is associated with irregular
menstrual cycles and infertility.
ADDITIONAL HEALTH CONSEQUENCES
Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risks of gall
bladder disease, incontinence, increased surgical risk, and
Obesity can affect the quality of life through limited mobility
and decreased physical endurance as well as through social,
academic, and job discrimination.
CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
Risk factors for heart disease, such as high cholesterol and high
blood pressure, occur with increased frequency in overweight
children and adolescents compared to those with a healthy
Type 2 diabetes, previously considered an adult disease, has
increased dramatically in children and adolescents. Overweight and
obesity are closely linked to type 2 diabetes. Overweight
adolescents have a 70% chance of becoming overweight or obese
adults. This increases to 80% if one or more parent is overweight
or obese. The most immediate consequence of overweight, as
perceived by children themselves, is social discrimination.
BENEFITS OF WEIGHT LOSS
Weight loss, as modest as 5 to 15% of total body weight in a person
who is overweight or obese, reduces the risk factors for some
diseases, particularly heart disease.
Weight loss can result in lower blood pressure, lower blood sugar,
and improved cholesterol levels.
A person with a Body Mass Index (BMI) above the healthy weight
range may benefit from weight loss, especially if he or she has
other health risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high
cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, a sedentary lifestyle, and a
personal and/or family history of heart disease.
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